No less puzzling is what a representative of a premodern human type is doing on the South American continent. According to the orthodox anthropology, this skull simply does not exist, because it cannot be. Textbooks’ oldest date of appearance of humans in North America is about 35000 BC and much later for South America, based on the diffusion theory assumptions.
The only accepted human types entering the continent are of the modern anatomy.
There are some other sources that place all types of human genus in both Americas at much earlier dates based on numerous anomalous finds, but the academe sticks to its preconceived notions, no matter what. It’s safer…
The “premodern” skull and the following three specimens were found in the Paracas region of Peru.
It does not necessarily mean that they are related. There is some possibility that the “premodern” is in fact a precursor of the “cone-head” type, but since we do not have any dating analysis at hand, we may only speculate in this regard.
The “cone-head” type is very unusual because of the cranial shape. Here we have three specimens, which exclude the possibility of random or artificial deformation (the already mentioned Nubian deformations had quite a number of individual variations).
They have individual characteristics within the range of overall morphology. There is no doubt that they are closely related and possibly represent quite a distinct branch of the genus Homo, if not an entirely different species.
The comparison of the C1 with a modern human skull has slight inaccuracies, caused by a degree of distortion when rotating the skull shape into position. As is obvious from C2 and C3, the angle of the bottom part of the cranium does not deviate from normal.
However, the general proportions are correct.
The enormity of the cranial vault is obvious from all three pictures. By interpolation, we can estimate the minimum cranial capacity at 2200 cm3, but the value can be as high as 2500 cm3.
The shape of the skull may be a biological response – a survival of the species mechanism – to increase the brain mass without the danger of relegating the species to extinction and keeping a viable biological reproduction intact.
However, since we do not see the representatives of the “cone-head” type in modern population, something prevented the type becoming as widespread as it is in the case of present-day moderns.
The “J” type of skull presents different sets of problems. It is an equivalent of the modern type of skull in all respects, with only several factors out of proportion. Less significant is the size of eye sockets which are about 15% larger than in modern populations. More significant is the enormity of the cranial vault.
The estimated cranial capacity ranges between minimum of 2600 cm3 to 3200 cm3.